Structural independence in investigations: the Kevin Ruddy case
When one individual or public body investigates another, it is essential that they be fully independent of each other so that there is no suspicion of bias. This situation is described by the phrase ‘structural independence’.

An important case establishing this principle is the appeal of Kevin Ruddy against the Chief Constable of the Strathclyde Police and the Lord Advocate (3 September 2013). See the following link.

https://www.scotcourts.gov.uk/search-judgments/judgment?id=e3b186a6-8980-69d2-b500-ff0000d74aa7

In case the link has changed ...

The title of the case is:

EXTRA DIVISION, INNER HOUSE, COURT OF SESSION

[2013] CSIH 73, XA114/08

Lord Eassie, Lord Brodie, Lord Wheatley

OPINION OF THE COURT, delivered by LORD EASSIE 3 September 2013

In the appeal by KEVIN RUDDY Pursuer and appellant;
against (FIRST) THE CHIEF CONSTABLE, STRATHCLYDE POLICE; and (SECOND) THE LORD ADVOCATE