Structural independence in investigations: the Kevin Ruddy case
When one individual or public body investigates another, it is essential that they be fully independent of each other so that there is no suspicion of bias. This situation is described by the phrase ‘structural independence’.

An important case establishing this principle is the appeal of Kevin Ruddy against the Chief Constable of the Strathclyde Police and the Lord Advocate (3 September 2013). See the following link.

https://www.scotcourts.gov.uk/opinions/2013CSIH73.html